The PGE Group companies conduct their business activities based on relevant concessions, including primarily concession on: production, trading and distribution of electricity, generation, transmission and distribution of heat, granted by the President of Energy Regulatory Office and concessions for the extraction of lignite deposits, granted by the Minister of the Environment. Concessions, as a rule, are being issued for the period between 10 and 50 years. Main concessions in the PGE Group expire in the years 2020-2038.
Relevant assets are assigned to the held concessions on lignite mining and generation and distribution of electricity and heat, which was presented in detailed information on operating segments. For holding concessions concerning electricity and heat the Group incurs annual charges dependent on the level of turnover, whereas for conducting licensed extraction of lignite the exploitation charges as well as fees for the use of mining are borne. The exploitation charges depend on the current rate and the volume of the extraction. In 2016, PGE Group’s concessions costs amounted to PLN 5 milion (PLN 5 million in 2015), exploitation charges and minig usufruct charges amount to PLN 123 million in 2016 and PLN 126 million in 2015.
PGE Group presents information on operating segments in the current and comparative reporting period in accordance with IFRS 8 Operating Segments. The PGE Group’ segment reporting is based on the following business segments:
- Conventional Generation comprises exploration and mining of lignite and production of electricity in the Group’s power plants and heat and power plants as well as ancillary services,
- Renewables comprise generation of electricity in pumped-storage power plants and from renewable sources,
- Supply includes sales and purchases of electricity and gas on the wholesale market, trading in emissions certificates and energy origin rights, sales and purchases of fuel, as well as sales of electricity and rendering services to end users,
- Distribution comprises management over local distribution networks and transmission of electricity,
- Other operations comprise services rendered by the subsidiaries for the Group, e.g. fund raising, IT, telecommunication, accounting and HR, and transport services. Additionally, the other operations segment comprises the activities of a subsidiary whose main business is preparation and implementation of a nuclear power plant construction project.
Organization and management over the PGE Group is based on segment reporting separated by nature of the products and services provided. Each segment represents a strategic business unit, offering different products and serving different markets. Assignment of particular entities to operating segments is described in note 1.3 of these financial statements. As a rule, inter-segment transactions are disclosed as if they were concluded with third parties – under market conditions. The exception to this rule were new bonds issued by subsidiaries belonging the tax group with interest rates below market rates and settlements of tax losses within the tax group.
When analysing the results of particular business segments the management of the PGE Group draws attention primarily to EBITDA reached.
Seasonality of business segments
Main factors affecting the demand for electricity and heat are: weather conditions – air temperature, wind force, rainfall, socio-economic factors – number of energy consumers, energy carriers prices, growth of GDP and technological factors – advances in technology, product manufacturing technology. Each of these factors has an impact on technical and economic conditions of production, distribution and transmission of energy carriers, thus influence the results obtained by the PGE Group.
The level of electricity sales is variable throughout a year and depends especially on weather conditions- air temperature, length of the day. Growth in electricity demand is particularly evident in winter periods, while lower demands are observed during the summer months. Moreover, seasonal changes are evident among selected groups of end users. Seasonality effects are more significant for households than for the industrial sector.
Sales of heat depend in particular on air temperature and are higher in winter and lower in summer.